Guide to managing the risks of tree work

Source: Safework Australia

Safe Work Australia has published updated work health and safety guidance for tree work.

The Guide to managing the risks of tree work updates the previous Guide to managing risks of tree trimming and removal work.

The most significant changes in the guide relate to duties around managing the risk of falls when accessing trees and when to consider providing an additional backup safety line for single-rope access systems.

The guide provides practical information to assist persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs) to manage work health and safety (WHS) risks associated with tree trimming and removal work, including lopping, pruning, wood chipping and stump grinding.

The changes ensure consistency across Safe Work Australia’s guidance on managing the risk of falls, and the updated guide name reflects more commonly used industry terminology.

Ensure you are aware of the changes and understand your WHS duties when managing the risks associated with accessing trees.

Download and read the Guide to managing risks of tree work today.

Asbestos company fined $150k after fatal veranda fall.

Source: SafeWork South Australia

An Adelaide asbestos removal company has been fined $150,000 after one of its workers fell through the roof of a veranda to his death.

The 58-year-old man employed by Allstar Asbestos Services Pty Ltd was working on a crawl board placed over asbestos roof sheeting, which in turn was resting on timber rafters forming a veranda to a residential dwelling in March 2021.

The rafter immediately below the worker snapped, causing him to fall approximately 2.5 metres through the asbestos sheet roofing onto a concrete slab below the veranda.

He suffered a fatal brain injury.

Allstar was charged under section 32 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2012 (SA) following a SafeWork SA investigation.

The case was finalised in the South Australian Employment Tribunal on Friday 10 February 2023 following an early guilty plea.

It was alleged that Allstar had a health and safety duty to ensure, so far as was reasonably practicable, the health and safety of its workers while they were at work.

The deceased worker had been employed by Allstar for almost a decade and had held a Class B Supervisor of Asbestos Removal Licence since December 2014.

A site inspection was conducted by Allstar’s sole director and one other employee at the time.

During the inspection it was identified that a crawl board should be used following concerns over the condition of some rafters above the veranda.

The concerns were further addressed by the placement of a single Acrow prop, a wooden bearer and timber prop under the fascia beam.

Neither the Acrow prop, wooden beam or timber prop were positioned under the rafter that failed, resulting in the tragic incident.

The safe work procedure undertaken by Allstar identified the use of a harness, but one was not provided to the worker for his use at the time of the incident.

In sentencing remarks delivered on Friday, Deputy President Judge Rossi recorded a conviction against Allstar and imposed an initial fine of $500,000, which was reduced to $300,000 following a 40 per cent discount for an early guilty plea.

The fine was further reduced to $150,000 after taking into account Allstar’s inability to pay the full amount due to its limited financial position.

‘The danger associated with working on the asbestos sheeting to the veranda with the minimal propping provided by Allstar was obvious,’ Deputy President Judge Rossi said.

‘At the same time, no fall arrest system was implemented even though the need for one was identified by Allstar prior to the incident.

‘There has been no satisfactory explanation as to how the contravention was allowed to occur in this case, where the risk of falling from a height and measures to address the risk

were identified by Allstar prior to the incident and yet were not satisfactorily addressed.’

Allstar was ordered to pay costs of $3,598 including a $405 Victims of Crime levy.

It has also been directed to produce an educational video outlining the fatal incident, what it has since done to minimise the risk of a recurrence and highlighting the importance of safe systems for working at heights.

Deputy President Judge Rossi said although the penalty should deter a similar lapse in the future, he noted the genuine contrition, the good corporate character of Allstar, and the absence of any prior relevant conviction.

SafeWork SA Acting Executive Director Glenn Farrell said falls from heights, particularly below 3 metres, were among the most common causes of workplace injuries and deaths, all of which are preventable.

‘The lack of consideration and suitable controls to adequately prevent this tragedy is not acceptable,’ Mr Farrell said.

‘All workers and their loved ones should expect employers take reasonable steps to ensure their health and safety, and not to expose them to unnecessary and avoidable risks.’

Further links

SafeWork NSW Update Code of Practice: Confined Spaces

Source: SafeWork NSW

Confined spaces may pose a danger because they are not designed to be areas where people work. Hazards are not always obvious, may change and the risks include loss of consciousness, impairment, injury or death.

Many workplaces have confined spaces such as pits, drains and structural voids in buildings or equipment. They often have poor ventilation that can allow a hazardous atmosphere to quickly develop. The hazards are not always obvious, may change from one entry into the confined space to the next and depend on the workplace or environmental circumstances.

This code is based on a national model code of practice developed by Safe Work Australia under the harmonisation of national work health and safety legislation and has been approved under section 274 of the NSW Work Health and Safety Act 2011. Notice of that approval was published in the NSW Government Gazette referring to this code of practice as Confined spaces (page 7194) on Friday 16 December 2011. This code of practice commenced on 1 January 2012.

The 2022 Code of Practice: Confined Spaces, supersedes the 2020 publication.

This can be viewed online here.

Additional references and resources can be found in Standards:

  • AS 2865-2009 Confined Spaces
  • AS 1319-1994 Safety signs for the occupational environment
  • AS/NZS 1715: 2009 Selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment.

Federal Government passed the Anti-Discrimination and Human Rights Legislation

At the end of November 2022, the Federal Government passed the Anti-Discrimination and Human Rights Legislation (Respect@Work) Bill which aims to ensure everyone can work in safe, sexual harassment-free workplaces.

Two main functions of the new law will require employers to take measures to eliminate sex discrimination, sexual harassment and victimisation, and prohibits conduct that results in a hostile workplace environment on the basis of sex, and confers new regulatory powers on the Commission.

National Sex Discrimination Commissioner Kate Jenkins said: “The Respect@Work Bill is a major achievement that fundamentally changes how Australia protects people from workplace sexual harassment.

“It changes our settings from being reactive to also being proactive, so that employers are required to take meaningful action to prevent harassment from occurring. It shifts the emphasis from a complaints-based model to one where employers must take action, and continuously assess and evaluate whether they are meeting the requirements of the duty. 

The Commission, together with the Respect@Work Council, launched a new website earlier this month,, providing comprehensive information and resources to help businesses fulfil their obligations and create respectful workplaces, free from harassment.

The positive duty was a key recommendation of the Commission’s landmark  Respect@Work Report, led by Commissioner Jenkins, published in March 2020. The Government has committed to implementing all the report’s 55 recommendations as a matter of priority. 

Commissioner Jenkins said: “Although there will be a 12-month transition period before the duty becomes enforceable, I urge all workplaces to implement change now, so that people may enjoy safer workplaces, free from sexual harassment, sooner. 

“These important reforms are timely and should be considered by state and territory governments to achieve greater harmonisation of sexual harassment legislation as part of any upcoming legislative reviews.”

Slips, Trips and Falls

Source: Safe Work Australia

Each year slips, trips and falls cause thousands of preventable injuries, with the most common being musculoskeletal injuries and fractures. Persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs) must eliminate or minimise the risks of injury as far as is reasonably practicable.

The most common ones are: 

  • musculoskeletal injuries (injuries to muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage and spinal discs)
  • cuts 
  • bruises 
  • fractures 
  • dislocations. 

More serious injuries and deaths can also happen. 

Slip, trip and fall hazards 

Some things that can cause you to slip are: 

  • the wrong footwear 
  • polished, wet or greasy floors. 

In most cases, people trip on low obstacles that are hard to spot, such as: 

  • uneven edges in flooring 
  • loose mats 
  • open drawers 
  • untidy tools, or 
  • electrical cables. 

Falls can result from a slip or trip, but many occur from low heights. For example: 

  • steps 
  • stairs 
  • kerbs, 
  • holes 
  • ditches, or 
  • wet or slippery surfaces. 

WHS duties  

As a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU), you must always aim to eliminate the risk of slips, trips and falls, so far as is reasonably practicable. If that is not possible, you must minimise risks so far as is reasonably practicable. 

You must identify hazards, and assess and control risks. Think about your: 

  • work areas 
  • work procedures 
  • tools 
  • equipment.  

Consulting with workers can help you find better and easier ways to identify and minimise risks. You should also review control measures to ensure they are working as planned.  

Workers also have duties, including taking reasonable care for their own health and safety. 

Managing risks  

The best way to manage the risk of slips, trips and falls is to eliminate hazards at the design stage of the workplace.  

If you can’t eliminate the risk, you must minimise it so far as is reasonably practicable. 

Designing safe workplaces 

In designing floors, stairs, lighting, drainage and storage: 

  • keep floors at a single level and use slip-resistant floor coverings 
  • install extra power points to avoid trip hazards from trailing cords 
  • ensure all areas are well lit, particularly stairwells 
  • have good drainage and slip resistant grates 
  • have lots of storage, so things aren’t left in walkways. 

Safe work procedures 

Work procedures can also impact on the incidence of slips, trips and falls. Have clear procedures to: 

  • remove rubbish to avoid trip hazards 
  • return tools and other items to their storage areas after use 
  • report and clean spills 

Keep the workplace clean 

All workers share responsibility for keeping the workplace clean and tidy.  

Make sure you: 

  • have adequate rubbish and recycling bins 
  • have cleaning schedules in place 
  • dry floors after cleaning 
  • don’t have cords on walkway or work area floors. 


Training helps workers become more aware of slip and trip hazards and helps to prevent injuries.  

Training should include:  

  • awareness of slip and trip hazards 
  • identifying effective control measures 
  • duties of workers. 

Using personal protective equipment (PPE) 

As a PCBU, you should only use PPE: 

  • after you have implemented all other possible control measures. 
  • as an interim measure until you can use a better control measure 
  • as a backup in addition to other control measures. 

Slip-resistant footwear 

Slip-resistant footwear is a type of PPE. 

Slip-resistant footwear should be appropriate for the work and workers must wear it properly. 

In wet conditions, the shoe sole tread should: 

  • be deep enough to help penetrate the surface water 
  • make direct contact with the floor. 

In dry conditions, the shoe sole tread: 

  • pattern should be a flat bottom construction 
  • should grip the floor with maximum contact area. 

Types of slip-resistant footwear 

Urethane and rubber soles are more slip resistant than vinyl and leather soles.  

Sole materials that have tiny cell like features are slip resistant. 

Supporting information

SafeWork NSW Building and Construction Symposium 

The NSW Government’s inaugural Safe Work NSW Building and Construction Symposium was originally scheduled to be a two day event, in Sydney. The WAHA were initially engaged for the Symposium to present on the topic of fall prevention as well as be on the primary panel for a falls from heights workshop. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic the event was rescheduled twice before being downsized to a primary event in Sydney, with Regional Roadshow events held at Coffs Harbour, Tamworth, Newcastle, Wollongong, Batemans Bay, Wagga Wagga, Orange, and Port Macquarie. 

The Symposium finally came together in 2022, and was held at CommBank Stadium Parramatta on the 10th May 2022. The Symposium brought together the Regulator and the building and construction industry to launch the Scaffolding Industry Safety Standard (SISS) as well as conduct workshops to address the ongoing issues around working at heights in NSW. 

Scott Barber, Deborah Chick and Ashley Campbell attended the event as SMEs to participate in the break out sessions across three sub-industry areas; residential/house construction (stream 1), multi-storey mixed use (stream 2), and infrastructure (stream 3) provided a forum to address their specific issues, improve safety standards and work with Safe Work NSW. 

Participants at the Sydney event agreed that it was a valuable opportunity to engage and consult on WHS issues and attendance resulted in a better understanding of the regulatory landscape. They also found the Scaffolding Industry Safety Standard (SIIS) session valuable as it gave them a better understanding of how to safely manage scaffolding work; and commented that the workshops being split across three sub-industry areas; residential/house construction (class 1), multi- storey mixed use (class 2), and infrastructure provided a forum to address their specific issues, improve safety standards and work with SafeWork NSW. The most popular part of the symposium was the keynote speakers, followed by the networking opportunities, the delivery of the SISS and the falls from heights workshops.

You can read the full report of the SafeWork NSW Building and Construction Safety Symposium Evaluation online here.

Regarding the falls from heights workshops, each stream brainstormed ideas for potential regulatory options to solve this “wicked problem” – the most common cause of traumatic fatalities on NSW construction sites, with this statistic echoed throughout the whole of Australia where an average 12.2% of all workplace fatalities for the last five years running occur from a fall from height. A significant number of suggestions were recorded across all workshops in the afternoon, including: 

Regulatory change: increased penalties, demerit point system, specific Safe Work NSW led Working at Heights Forum, permit and licencing systems introduced; 

Communication: building greater awareness and risks including guidance material, changing messaging regarding accountability and duties of leaders; 

Training: specific training for Working at Heights specific to sub-sector and skills, White Card changes/inclusion of work at height, greater oversight of Registered Training Organisation (RTO) providers; and, 

Licensing: High Risk Work Licence (HRWL) e.g., <4m and >4m, sub-competencies as per trade (formwork, scaffold), validity period. 

A separate regulatory options paper will be prepared by Safe Work NSW for further consultation. 

Overall, the Symposium was a successful way to engage with the building and construction industry, with it recommended to be delivered every two years with smaller stream specific forums in between, to engage with industry and discuss solutions for priority issues, addressing specific harms in the targeted locations and sub-sectors across the state. 

SafeWork NSW will be meeting in February 2023 to further discuss the opportunity and logistics of bringing a working at height qualification over into the High Risk Work License, and the WAHA will be involved in this meeting. We look forward to following this project closely.

$2m fine reinforces SafeWork NSW Scaff Safe Message

Source: SafeWork NSW & Lets Talk About Safety

A Sydney scaffolding company has been fined $2 million by the NSW District Court, the highest penalty ever recorded for a SafeWork NSW offence.

Head of SafeWork NSW Natasha Mann said the fine serves as a reminder to construction businesses throughout NSW about the importance of work site safety as no amount of money will ever compensate for a life lost.

“On 1 April 2019, a steel modular scaffold collapsed at a construction site in Macquarie Park Sydney, crushing two workers. Tragically an 18-year-old worker was killed, and another suffered life-changing injuries,” Ms Mann said.

“Synergy Scaffolding Services Pty Ltd plead guilty to a Category 1 offence* under section 31/19(2) of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 in the NSW District Court.

“As part of the plea, Synergy accepted there was no vertical bracing for the scaffolding where there should have been, as per Australian Standards.

“Synergy also failed to advise the principal contractor that the loads placed on the scaffold exceeded the amount of weight the scaffold could safely hold, with the scaffold overloaded at the time of the incident.

“In sentencing, the judge noted the collapse of the scaffold was caused by a culmination of events and the case should serve as a telling reminder that unsafe acts on a building site can and do lead to catastrophic consequences.”

Ms Mann said Operation Scaff Safe 2022 is currently underway.

“It is a six-month campaign with Inspectors out in-force across NSW checking scaffolding installations on construction sites. In particular, they will be looking to see that installations are applying the new Scaffold Industry Safety Standard (PDF, 11195.23 KB) which was published in March of this year.

“Scaffolding requires constant attention and coordination. The Industry Standard sets out practical guidance that can be used by principal contractors and scaffolders to effectively manage safety risks through all phases of a construction project.

“Inspectors can issue on-the-spot fines for non-compliance. Individuals may be fined up to $720 and businesses up to $3,600,” she said.

In the past two years SafeWork NSW have implemented several programs to improve safety for workers in the construction industry including:

  • The establishment of a Family and Injured Worker Support Group to provide advice and feedback to SafeWork NSW for families and injured workers impacted by a workplace tragedy.
  • The development of a Young Worker eToolkit, for employees and workers, containing tips and training materials about work safety rights and responsibilities.
  • The Speak Up Save Lives app which allows people to anonymously report unsafe work practices directly to SafeWork NSW.
  • Annual SafeWork NSW Building and Construction Symposium events that brings builders, industry, and government together to improve safety for workers.

Find scaffolding safety resources and further information at SafeWork NSW.

Synergy Scaffolding Services has the right to appeal the penalty.

* Category 1 is the most serious category of offence provided for in the Work Health and Safety Act. The offence is committed when a person with a health and safety duty engages in conduct that exposes an individual to a risk of death or serious injury, without a reasonable excuse and is reckless as to that risk.

In addition to the work undertaken by SafeWork NSW in the last two years, the family of the 18-year-old worker who tragically lost his life, have actively been working within the industry to Stop; Speak Up and Save Lives.

Christopher Cassaniti had only just celebrated  his 18th Birthday with family and friends on the Saturday. He had just purchased his first car and picked it up on the Friday before. He was a young man with dreams and goals that were never fulfilled. His death shook the family and the industry to its core and left a legacy behind, so since his death, his mother Patrizia Cassaniti has turned her anger to something positive and has been advocating safety in his honour with a mission to make sure that no Australian worker should ever go to work and die. She has been making her presence known at major industry events and with media outlets, sharing her story about ‘WHAT TRAGEDY LOOKS LIKE’ and what happens when complacency overrides what we know is Safe to do in the first place and disaster hits.

Patrizia Cassaniti attended the SafeWork NSW – Building and Construction Safety Symposium earlier this year, during which the aforementioned SafeWork Scaffolding Industry Safety Standard was released.

The scaffold was a wedge-lock type birdcage scaffold, originally used as a bridge between a personnel and materials hoist and the building under construction. At the time of collapse the hoist had been removed and the scaffold was being used to store material and to complete the remaining façade work on the exterior of the building.

The subsequent investigation by SafeWork NSW identified issues with the planning, design, management and modification of the scaffold, as well as a lack of clarity regarding its duty rating. It also identified a need for clear written guidance regarding:

  • Management of contractors
  • Management of scaffolding work
  • Management of erected scaffolds, particularly on-going modification
  • Training and qualification of workers
  • Role of engineers, sign-offs and verifications

The prosecution resulted in a WHS Project Order made under Section 238 of the NSW Work Health and Safety Act 2011, to develop a Scaffolding Industry Safety Standard to provide this guidance: which you can view online here.

Is Your Confined Space Rescue Plan Up To Scratch?

It is still a common, albeit not acceptable, occurrence to walk into a workplace within Australia and review a confined space entry permit, only to find that the ‘rescue plan’ only states ‘Call 000’.

This so-called ‘rescue plan’ does not meet the Australian regulatory requirements and does not adequately account for any unique considerations the confined space presents, let alone safely plan for the rescue of injured personnel.

Confined space emergencies often occur when confined space entry control measures fail, or control measures are not adhered to. A failure in confined space entry control measures can lead to a fatality, or multiple fatalities if teams are not trained well and a robust SWMS is in place.

Sadly, data shows us that approximately 50% of confined space fatalities are ‘would-be’ rescuers who endeavour to rescue persons from confined space emergencies, often without the appropriate training, equipment and experience required.

1. When was the last time you reviewed the confined space rescue capability at your workplace?

Do you have a documented and rehearsed rescue plan, with adequately trained rescue personnel and the capability to rescue an injured person from a confined space if an emergency occurs?

PCBUs must ensure that adequate emergency procedures are in place for all confined space entries, and that these emergency procedures are documented and regularly rehearsed. For your organisation to have a well-developed confined space rescue capability, you should have the following three key measures in place:

  • A confined space rescue plan is completed for every confined space entry that occurs.
  • Confined space rescue training is undertaken by relevant personnel based on the site-specific hazards and risks.
  • Confined space rescue exercises form part of the overall emergency management and emergency preparedness strategy for your workplace.

2. A confined space rescue plan is completed for every confined space entry that occurs

All confined space entries are different, and each requires a documented emergency response plan that covers the types of emergencies that may occur and the specific rescue procedures to be followed in the event of an emergency. The rescue plan should be written by a competent person who analyses the confined space work, the types of emergencies that are foreseeable and the emergency rescue procedures to be implemented.

By having an effective confined space rescue plan in place (which should be attached to the confined space entry permit at the confined space entry location), you can ensure that if an emergency occurs, a safe and effective emergency response can be undertaken that has been documented. This prevents rescues that could expose rescuers to hazards that they are not aware of from being undertaken without proper planning.

Generally, a confined space rescue plan should cover at least the following:

  • Activation of the rescue plan (who will activate the emergency response and who will attend, and who will contact emergency services).
  • PPE required by the rescue team prior to entry (eg, SCBA, retrieval equipment, medical response, etc).
  • Rescue method (non-entry rescue such as a tripod and winch, or an entry-rescue that may require rescue personnel to wear breathing apparatus and other PPE).
  • Pre-positioned rescue and first aid equipment required, inspection of equipment, and location of equipment and anchor points, etc (eg, tripods, harnesses, stretchers, rope rescue equipment, breathing apparatus equipment, gas detectors, communication equipment etc). Note: Consideration should be given to locating this equipment at the confined space entry and pre-rigging equipment where practicable.
  • How the casualty will be extracted from the incident to medical assistance and who will provide the medical assistance.
  • Does the complexity of the rescue plan require the confined space entrants to wear specific PPE such as a confined space harness throughout the work, or do workers need to remain attached to ropes or winch lines as an additional safety consideration?
  • Specific hazards and control measures that must be known and understood by the rescue team prior to entry, such as isolations. The rescue team must also review the confined space entry permit prior to entry.

Note: If the assessed work within the confined space changes, or if items of rescue equipment noted within the rescue plan are not available on the day of the work, then the confined space work should cease until a new rescue plan is completed.

3. Confined space rescue training is undertaken by the relevant personnel based on the site-specific hazards and risks

The selection of the type of confined space rescue training to be carried out must be based on the types of confined space rescue scenarios that your personnel may be required to respond to. Expert advice should be sought to ensure that the confined space training is based on the types of rescues that must be undertaken and the equipment available.

Confined space rescue courses are normally 3–5 days in duration (depending on the modules covered) and normally comprise the following subjects:

  • Confined space hazards and control measures.
  • Confined space rescue systems (rigging rope rescue systems, use of tripods and davits, stretcher usage, anchor points and re-directions etc).
  • Rescue team duties, rescue size-up and planning (team leader, safety officer, rescue team members).
  • First aid and patient packaging knowledge and skills.
  • Breathing apparatus usage in emergency response environments (self-contained breathing apparatus and/or airline breathing apparatus operations in areas of restricted movement).
  • Gas detection knowledge and skills.
  • Various practical rescue scenarios based on the specific hazards of the workplace.

Confined space training should involve an emphasis on practical rescue skills, rigging skills and patient packaging skills. Multiple scenarios should be run so that rescue team members can apply their skills and knowledge to varied scenarios, and participate in the various rescue team member roles. At the conclusion of the course, participants should be able to respond to reasonably foreseeable confined space rescue situations on-site, develop a rescue plan and complete a rescue of injured personnel within a confined space environment. Training should be refreshed at least annually to retain core skills.

4. Confined space rescue exercises form part of the overall emergency management and emergency preparedness strategy for your workplace

For confined space rescue teams to conduct safe rescues of injured patients from a confined space, exercises must occur regularly. Confined space rescue exercises give rescue teams the ability to hone their knowledge, skills and experience in a variety of circumstances. Rescue scenarios should mirror real-world, site-specific scenarios that may occur at your workplace and make use of actual workplace confined spaces wherever practicable.

Where possible, have confined space rescue exercises supervised by a confined space rescue trainer who can provide practical guidance and feedback to improve the performance of the rescue team. Plan out the exercises a year ahead, involve your safety team and have the goal of increasing the complexity of the rescue exercise on each occasion to develop the rescue team’s skills.


Confined space rescues are a very technical form of rescue that often involves setting up complex rope rescue systems, utilising breathing apparatus equipment and gas detection equipment. To ensure that you have a tried and tested capability to rescue injured personnel from confined space emergencies, ensure that you put in confined space rescue plans, conduct appropriate confined space rescue training and regularly carry out confined space emergency response exercises.

Article by Scott Barber – CEO, Australian Working at Height Association (WAHA)

Key WHS Statistics – Australia 2022

Each year, Safe Work Australia produces national work health and safety statistics, providing important evidence on the state of work health and safety in Australia.

Key Work Health and Safety Statistics, Australia 2022 provides an overview of the latest national data on work-related fatalities and workers’ compensation claims. This includes trends, gender and age comparisons, and industry and occupation breakdowns.

Understanding the causes of injury and the industries most affected can help reduce work-related fatalities, injuries and disease. Work-related fatalities, injuries and illnesses have a devastating impact on workers, their families and the community.

Tragically, 169 workers died in 2021 – of which 19 were killed due to a fall form height, and 16 from being hit by falling objects.

For the last 5 years straight, falls from height remains one of the leading causes of workplace fatalities in Australia.

28 falls from height (15%)
15 being hit by falling objects (8%)

18 falls from height (13%)
15 being hit by falling objects (10%)

21 falls from height (11%)
21 being hit by falling objects (11%)

22 falls from height (11%)
17 being hit by falling objects (9%)

19 falls from height (11%)
16 being hit by falling objects (9%)

Worker fatalities by mechanism of incident, 2021.

The Construction Sector remains one of the leading industries work workplace fatalities and incidents / workers’ compensation claims.

Whilst we can see a promising decrease in Australia’s overall rate of fatalities, from 2003 to 2021, there is worrying increase in the number of worker’s compensation claims.

There were a total of 114,435 serious workers’ compensation claims in Australia in 2018-19.

There were a total of 120,355 serious workers’ compensation claims in Australia in 2019-20. Body stressing was the leading cause of serious workers’ compensation claims in 2019-20, accounting for 37% of all serious claims.

There were a total of 130,195 serious workers’ compensation claims in Australia in 2020-21. Body stressing was the leading cause of serious workers’ compensation claims in 2020-21, accounting for 37% of all serious claims.

Mental health conditions account for a relatively small but increasing proportion of serious claims, rising from 6% of all serious claims in 2014-15 to 9% in 2020-21. In 2020-21, the largest share related to anxiety or stress disorders (36%) or reaction to stressors – other, multiple or not specified (34%). Workplace mental health conditions are one of the costliest forms of workplace injury. SafeWork Australia data shows that they lead to significantly more time off work and higher compensation paid when compared to physical injuries and diseases.

It stands to reason that Mental Health is one of the current focus points for SafeWork Australia, including the release of the Code of Practice for Managing psychosocial hazards at work earlier this year.

The WAHA continue to work towards a zero fatality future for those in the at height sectors. The WAHA is dedicated to supporting and influencing the ongoing development of safe practice, equipment innovation, systems and product design, continuous education of all stakeholders and the operational competency of all persons working at height and in confined spaces.

WA release Health and Safety Bulletin No. 6 Requirements for flying foxes (zip lines)

Source: SafeWork WA.

It has come to the attention of WorkSafe that there are potentially several hundred flying foxes in operation across Western Australia.

A flying fox is an amusement device consisting of an elevated rope on which a pulley or trolley system is used to transport passenger(s) between two support structures. Flying foxes are also called zip lines.

Regulation 5 of the Work Health and Safety (General) Regulations 2022 (WHS General Regulations) defines an amusement device as plant operated for hire or reward that provides entertainment, sightseeing or amusement through movement of the equipment, or part of the equipment, or when passengers or other users travel or move on, around or along the equipment. This means that a flying fox is an amusement device under the WHS General Regulations if a system for payment is in place.

A person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) has duties under Work Health and Safety legislation to ensure the health and safety of workers and others in a workplace, so far as is reasonably practicable. In regard to amusement devices such as flying foxes, this duty includes passengers. 

Read the Health & Safety Bulletin N. 6

Summary of hazard

Factors such as inadequate design, installation, inspection, maintenance and training have contributed to serious injuries and fatalities from flying foxes in the eastern states and overseas.

Passengers are exposed to risks of potential injuries or death if flying foxes do not meet the design requirements of a published technical standard, or their installation, testing, inspection and maintenance do not meet the requirements specified by the designer or manufacturer. For example, the passenger could fall from a height, or hit a structure while moving at speed.

Managing hazards and risks

A risk management approach is the best way to determine the measures that should be implemented to control risks for flying foxes.

Effective risk management starts with a commitment to health and safety from those who operate and manage the business or undertaking. Managing work health and safety risks is an ongoing process. Risk management involves four steps:

  • identify hazards – find out what could cause harm
  • assess risks – understand the possible harm, how serious it could be, and the likelihood of it happening
  • control risks – implement the most effective control measure that is reasonably practicable in the circumstances
  • review control measures to ensure they are working as planned

The aim must always be to eliminate a hazard where reasonably practicable. If elimination of a hazard is not reasonably practicable, the risk needs to be minimised by one or a combination of the following:

Engineering – only use the flying fox in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Ensure equipment is in good condition and free from any defects. Any components or equipment associated with the flying fox should be used, inspected and maintained according to the manufacturer’s specifications and instructions.

In the absence of any manufacturer’s specifications and instructions, follow the instructions of a competent person. This may mean engaging a competent person to develop instructions for the use, inspection and maintenance of the flying fox.

Administrative controls – if risk remains, it must be minimised by implementing administrative controls, so far as is reasonably practicable. For example:

  • ensuring only authorised persons perform specific tasks
  • ensuring worker training, experience and competency are appropriate for the nature and complexity of their duties
  • before commencing any maintenance work on a flying fox, a competent person should inspect components and equipment to identify any wear, movement or alterations to the system that may adversely affect its safe operation.

Personal protective equipment – any remaining risk must be minimised with suitable personal protective equipment. For example, helmets, harnesses or gloves may be required when using some flying foxes.

Additional information can be found online here.